Alloy Geek 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel Standard
Alloy 316, also known as AISI 316 or UNS S31600, is a widely used austenitic stainless steel alloy. It's part of the 300 series stainless steels and is known for its excellent corrosion resistance, versatility, and suitability for a wide range of applications.
Chemical composition of 316 stainless steel:
- Chromium (Cr): 16-18%
- Nickel (Ni): 10-14%
- Molybdenum (Mo): 2-3%
- Carbon (C): 0.08% max
- Manganese (Mn): 2% max
- Silicon (Si): 0.75% max
- Phosphorus (P): 0.045% max
- Sulfur (S): 0.03% max
- Nitrogen (N): 0.10% max
- Iron (Fe): Remainder
Key features and characteristics of Alloy 316:
Corrosion Resistance: Alloy 316 is known for its excellent corrosion resistance, especially in aggressive environments. It offers resistance to various corrosive agents, including acids, chlorides, and seawater.
Versatility: Due to its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, Alloy 316 is used in a wide variety of industries, including marine, chemical processing, pharmaceuticals, food processing, and more.
Crevice and Pitting Resistance: The addition of molybdenum enhances the alloy's resistance to crevice corrosion and pitting, which are forms of localized corrosion.
Weldability: Alloy 316 is easily weldable using common welding methods, making fabrication and assembly processes relatively straightforward.
High-Temperature Performance: While Alloy 316 offers good high-temperature strength, it might not be as suitable for extremely high-temperature applications as some other specialized alloys.
Non-Magnetic: Alloy 316 is typically non-magnetic in the annealed condition, although it may become slightly magnetic when cold worked.
Applications: It is used in a wide range of applications, including marine equipment, chemical processing equipment, medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and architectural structures.
Forms: Alloy 316 is available in various forms, including sheets, plates, bars, and pipes.
Alloy 316's combination of corrosion resistance, mechanical strength, and versatility makes it one of the most commonly used stainless steel grades. It's suitable for applications where exposure to corrosive environments is likely, making it a preferred choice in industries where corrosion resistance is paramount.
XRF standards are thin samples typically around 1/4" thick while OES standards are typically much thicker to allow for sample preparation.
Reference Material (RM): A reference material, or RM, is a material with a known composition or property that is used for informational purposes to look at analytical instruments, methods, or procedures. It serves as a point of comparison to ensure the accuracy and reliability of measurements. Reference materials can vary in terms of their level of characterization and traceability. Some reference materials may have well-defined properties, but they might not have undergone the rigorous testing and certification process that certified reference materials (CRMs) undergo. Reference Material chemical compositions are for information purposes.
Certified Reference Material (CRM): A certified reference material, or CRM, is a type of reference material that has been thoroughly analyzed and characterized using multiple validated methods to determine its composition or properties. The results of these analyses are then used to establish certified values, along with associated uncertainties. CRMs are produced and certified by accredited organizations or laboratories following internationally recognized standards, such as ISO Guide 34 (ISO 17034). The certification process includes interlaboratory comparison and statistical analysis to ensure accuracy and traceability.
In summary, the main difference between a reference material and a certified reference material lies in the level of characterization, validation, and certification. CRMs have undergone a more comprehensive and rigorous testing process, resulting in certified values and uncertainties that can be confidently used for instrument calibration, quality control, and research. Reference materials, on the other hand, can provide a point of comparison but do not have the same level of certification and traceability as CRMs. When accuracy and traceability are critical, certified reference materials are preferred.