Alloy Geek HS-188 Cobalt Standard
HS-188, often known as HAYNES® 188 alloy (UNS R30188), represents a remarkable cobalt-nickel-chromium-tungsten alloy. This alloy harmoniously merges exceptional high-temperature strength with remarkable resistance against oxidizing conditions, demonstrating its prowess in environments reaching up to 2000°F (1095°C) for extended periods. Moreover, its exceptional resilience extends to sulfate deposit hot corrosion. This alloy's adaptability shines as it can be effortlessly shaped and fabricated using conventional methods, and it has even been harnessed for cast components. Further adding to its allure is its outstanding ability to withstand the challenges posed by molten chloride salts, coupled with its commendable resistance to gaseous sulfidation.
Reference Material (RM): A reference material, or RM, is a material with a known composition or property that is used for informational purposes to look at analytical instruments, methods, or procedures. It serves as a point of comparison to ensure the accuracy and reliability of measurements. Reference materials can vary in terms of their level of characterization and traceability. Some reference materials may have well-defined properties, but they might not have undergone the rigorous testing and certification process that certified reference materials (CRMs) undergo. Reference Material chemical compositions are for information purposes.
Certified Reference Material (CRM): A certified reference material, or CRM, is a type of reference material that has been thoroughly analyzed and characterized using multiple validated methods to determine its composition or properties. The results of these analyses are then used to establish certified values, along with associated uncertainties. CRMs are produced and certified by accredited organizations or laboratories following internationally recognized standards, such as ISO Guide 34 (ISO 17034). The certification process includes interlaboratory comparison and statistical analysis to ensure accuracy and traceability.
In summary, the main difference between a reference material and a certified reference material lies in the level of characterization, validation, and certification. CRMs have undergone a more comprehensive and rigorous testing process, resulting in certified values and uncertainties that can be confidently used for instrument calibration, quality control, and research. Reference materials, on the other hand, can provide a point of comparison but do not have the same level of certification and traceability as CRMs. When accuracy and traceability are critical, certified reference materials are preferred.